boule de suif

This, of course, leaves no concern for the means to the end of the consequence: No examination is given to duty or to what is right or good; the aim is purely targeted on the greatest happiness for the greatest number. (p. 494), "It provokes an indictment of human nature. The two nuns are simple and spend most of the time praying. in Academy, n.s. But that scarcely is sufficient to justify our admiration for the novel. The group, rather than praising her for her sacrifice, engages in open displays of contempt, even disgust. It is believed that Maupassant was born at Château de Miromesniel on August 5, 1850, although it is speculated that his parents moved him from their humble house in Fécamp to the imposing Miromesniel mansion to give their first-born child a high-sounding birthplace. But he is a creature of instinct; the pity which fills his eyes one moment is forgotten the next. Madame Carré-Lamadon is one of the ten travelers aboard the coach bound for Le Havre. He cares only for excitement, nor does he reck of what species, tender, morose, or even cruel. Boule de Suif lives through a moral code drenched in utilitarianism. She speaks with the Prussian and even sleeps with him to appease her fellow travelers. The title translates as "Ball of Fat," but in most English translations the title is left in Maupassant's native tongue. He is widely recognized throughout the region surrounding Rouen as a practical joker, and most everyone knows that he is full of duplicity, yet no one seems to mind because he is so merry. Her actions free her and her traveling companions, but Boule de Suif, crushed under guilt and self-disgust, is reduced to tears. In addition, the passengers commit the greatest immoral act in that they are using Boule de Suif's physical body to achieve their own desired end. In Rouen he worked to organize the fortification of the town, and upon leaving he hopes his It may also be that Maupassant has received little attention from critics and academics Although the young author was grateful for Flaubert's instruction and doting, he was much more lighthearted and cynical than his mentor. Boule de Suif is initially stubborn, but eventually she takes the utilitarian route, saving her companions from a possible backlash. This reaction to their traveling companion is one of many indications that the group, with the exception of Boule de Suif, is driven largely by selfish motivations rather than self-sacrifice. She and her husband, Monsieur Follenvie, run the inn, which has been taken over by Prussians. Respectable women — Comtesse of Bréville, factory-owner Carré-Lamadon and wife of wine merchant Loiseau — observe moral standards only outwardly. Dans cette nouvelle l’argent amène les bourgeois à se croire supérieurs à Boule de suif. In fact, even Madame Loiseau is not beyond imagining herself in the prostitute's place, and her statement that the Prussian officer would doubtless have preferred one of the three married women can only be regarded as wishful thinking. Short Stories for Students. Her stabbing of him and the ringing of the bells which had remained silent in the face of his ironic threats to have the townsmen's blood or be the cause of their ringing again are almost anticlimatic, following as they do in the wake of her success in making the Prussian feel the littleness ascribed to him and his kind by those he had conquered but could not break. She is a pacifist at heart, not appreciating any killing whatsoever. Les hommes avaient la barbe longue et sale, des uniformes en guenilles, et ils avançaient d'une allure molle, sans drapeau, sans régiment. Whether the sexual activity of the last night is legitimate is not made explicit by the text, but the fact remains that the travellers' prurient appetites have been aroused—and satisfied—by the presence of Boule de suif. The war was precipitated by a series of feather-ruffling events that would eventually lead to Germany unifying itself under Prussian leadership to wage war against the French. With their help, he realizes a sexual invasion of the unwilling prostitute which is but a metaphor for his army's military invasion of France. He wrote the last fifty pages of Une Vie, and, by a fortunate concatenation of circumstances, therein produced an effect of pathos which, crude though it is, has scarcely been surpassed in all fiction. The underlying cause of the conflict was Prussian statesman Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck's desire to unify Germany under Prussian control and eliminate France's power over Germany. Boule de suif et autres histoires de guerre (GF LITTÃ RATURE) (French Edition) Maupassant, Guy de; Fonyi, Antonia. Maupassant's choice of a culinary metaphor to describe their activity is not unexpected: Un étranger n'aurait rien compris tant les précautions du langage étaient observées. What of importance had he seen? If she had not made such a utilitarian sacrifice or, even worse, if she had not been on the coach at all, then there was a chance that the German officers would have kept them indefinitely in Tôtes or possibly even raped the female travelers. Only the epithet "saintes" apparently subverts the equation nuns = prostitutes, and one senses that, in the case of the elder nun at least, it is merely an accident of nature (the disfiguring smallpox) which made of her a "sainte fille en cornette" rather than a "fille" tout court. It seems to be a little smug even in its elaborate cynicism. The title character, Boule de Suif, is unwilling to do something that is against her own understanding of right and wrong—sleeping with the Prussian commandant—to appease her companions. Only the younger nun does not participate actively in the alliance against Boule de suif, although her silence must be understood as compliance with the efforts of the other women. His pronouncement which removes the other women's hypocritical compunction against accepting food from a prostitute is the type of thing one finds in Flaubert's Dictionnaire des idees recues. Boule de Suif is emotionally damaged from the event that saved her companions, but she is even more deeply hurt when they turn against her, once again regarding her and her actions as immoral: On the trip out of Tôtes, Boule de Suif is hurried and does not have time to pack provisions, but none of the other passengers will share food with her, speak with her, or thank her in any way. The historical justesse of this phenomenon is well-known, but Maupassant cannot resist adding a sexual dimension to his account of the Brévilles' aristocratic origins. That he loves a joke is much in his favour; and we allow that his laugh has an infectious ring about it which ought to scatter some of our dislike for the self-conscious misanthrope. Her duplicity is underlined often and her own role in the seduction of the prostitute is a major one, since it is she who brings the elder nun into the plot. And Boule de Suif's ignorance of their absurd cliches sets her above them in our minds. The scenario of the conspiracy had been sketched the previous day while Boule de suif attended a baptism. Boule de Suif carries herself with dignity and a freshness that makes her attractive and desirable. The novels especially provide us with portraits of women who closely resemble Laure de Maupassant. No one extends the courtesy she offered to the other passengers on the road to Tôtes. Madame Follenvie is the innkeeper in Tôtes. He is a fat hedonist, with a red face and graying beard. Classical literature summary and analysis, “Orpheus, Eurydice and Hermes”, analysis of the poem by Rainer Maria Rilke, “Autumn Day”, analysis of the poem by Rainer Maria Rilke, “One Hundred Years of Solitude”, analysis of the novel by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, “Jonathan Livingston Seagull”, analysis of the novella by Richard Bach, “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer”, analysis of the novel by Mark Twain. It is one of his best Russell is summarizing one of the greatest difficulties with utilitarianism, not only in relation to governmental law but also to any law in general. In the following essay excerpt, Donaldson-Evans discusses the main sexual theme and sub-themes of nutrition, socioeconomics, and the military in "Boule de suif," while placing the storywithin the context of Maupassant's "war" and "whore" stories. However, there seems to be a limit to Boule de Suif's flexibility. Boule de Suif believes that these axioms should never be broken, namely that there should always be a different means to achieve the same end that would not require doing acts in opposition to her imperatives. At the end of the story, however, the prostitute does not emerge triumphantly in the eyes of her traveling companions. Boule de Suif swiftly and happily complies, eventually feeding everyone in the coach. "Seen as a mirror-perfect image of France herself, la belle, la douce France, humiliated and betrayed by her very own people, those whom she had succoured and nourished, Boule de suif acquires a tragic grandeur.". She would not have been able to utter their eloquent It soon becomes apparent that they will not be able to depart Tôtes until Boule de Suif has sex with the Prussian commandant. In light of Kant's beliefs, revisiting the old nun's version of the moral axiom "the end justifies the means" reveals an argument riddled with complexities. While part of the savagery of this scene may be explained by Maupassant's desire to remain faithful to the tenets of Naturalism, we can also see in it a scarcely veiled Darwinism which is verbalized later in the tale by the count himself: "Il ne faut jamais résister aux gens qui sont les plus forts." Langevin, Paul It is not by chance that this movement, too, had been made possible by the sacrifice of the humble. It was France itself which had so confidently declared war, convinced of the invincibility of its army, the French bourgeois who had made the occupation so effortless for the Enemy, the French Republicans who had needlessly prolonged the war after the defeat of the Empire, when Prussia's final victory seemed to all but a reckless few a foregone conclusion, the French who, in the end, turned against their own compatriots in one of the bloodiest Civil wars in French history, the war against the Paris Communards. Maupassant with this brief incident has shown us the larger meaning of his story, and how the meaning of his story transcends the boundaries in which he had given it light. Regardless of the reason, his lack of attention is seemingly unmerited, considering the scope and clarity of his writing. Unfortunately, no one but Boule de Suif has brought provisions for the trip, and since the wealthy, respectable travelers have deemed her immoral and cast insults at her, they are hesitant to ask for food or wine. He chose a woman to show us his admiration for the unique strength of the great. PRINCIPAL WO…, Langevin, Paul Among the male travellers, the prostitute's ostracization on sexual grounds is mirrored by Cornudet's politico-economic isolation, as Sullivan has suggested. The magnificent courage and nobility of woman in time of war and defeat inspired what many consider to be his greatest story, Boule de Suif. 1870. Many Prussians are boarding up with townspeople and, in general, acting quite respectable in the townspeople's homes. Boule de Suif is regarded as someone from the lowest social class, dirty and immoral, not worthy of sitting among the rich. Finally, the respectable individuals are in the vast majority, as it is expensive to flee to Tôtes. She is traveling alone. Present a comparison to the class of the morality invoked by these historical events alongside the morality of the characters in the short story. Throughout the story, Cornudet is in verbal opposition with the respectable men and women with whom he is traveling. The passage deserves to be quoted in its entirety: La diligence, attelée enfin, attendait devant la porte, tandis qu'une armée de pigeons blancs, rengorgés dans leurs plumes épaisses, avec un œil rose, taché, au milieu, d'un point noir, se promenaient gravement entre les jambes des six chevaux, et cherchaient leur vie dans le crottin fumant qu'ils éparpillaient. Boule de suif Pendant plusieurs jours de suite des lambeaux d’armée en déroute avaient traversé la ville. It is her job to deliver happiness in the form of sex to her clientele. Kant, Immanuel, Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, translated by James W. Ellington, Hackett Publishing, 1993, p. 36. Russell, Bertrand, A History of Western Philosophy, Simon & Schuster, 1972, p. 628. As soon as Boule de Suif went upstairs to the bedroom of one man, they were happy to discuss the intimate process, cracking so «greasy» jokes about this act as their husbands. As soon as the woman performs her task, criticism of the society culminates and people turn away from her, as from a leper. gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). The character of Elizabeth Rousset — one of the most colorful in the novel. 483–84). LitCharts Teacher Editions. Next, in Tôtes, which was already occupied by Germans, Boule de Suif compromised her own categorical imperative—not to have sex with a man against her own wishes—and slept with the Prussian commandant to free herself and her companions. She is determined and runs the firm, doing all the bookkeeping. Although angered, William I agreed to their demands. We are here shown, with singular clearness, the Paris of [Daudet's] 'Les Rois en Exil.' The prostitute Rachel, in Mademoiselle Fifi, behaves in the way that epitomized for Maupassant the effective disdain of the conquered. She is forced to hurriedly board the coach. Let us begin, then, with the sexual code. The theme is not new, nor does it end here. C’est une prostituée, « une de celles appelées galantes ». However, Maupassant's own talent may be the reason so many critics have turned their backs on his work. De Maupassant was, of course, a born writer. He prefers a drinking scene, in which his comrades laugh over barrack-room stories, and make the glasses on the table ring again.…, In 'Notre Coeur' there is a sort of murderous enchantment, which takes prisoner soul and sense, though certainly not those of an Englishman, who despises what to his Gallic neighbour might seem to be luxuries of feeling. All the while, her position is created not on her own accord, but through the manipulation of spiteful members of the respectable social order. The group consensus as to the prostitute's fate seems to be that she should be willing to comply for the sake of their freedom, that sleeping with the enemy, because of her line of work, "was such a trivial thing for her." We assert our intense admiration for much of his work. From the course of the infection, Maupassant began to lose his sanity. Her steady dedication to her purpose is the quality with which Maupassant often endowed his women: it is consistent with his depiction of woman as uniquely capable of the kind of discipline necessary to overcome the greatest obstacles. Beginning with a vague conversation on self-sacrifice, the discussion emphasizes the idea that "a woman's only duty on earth was perpetual sacrifice of her person." Eventually the coach arrives in Tôtes. Kant calls these laws categorical imperatives, which define morality through objective requirements, independent of individual desires. Aggression is the sine qua non of her trade. As a prostitute, Boule de suif is the incarnation of sexuality. 174, No. The world of detestable, though still human vice, seems to undergo a transformation as we pass with him along his dark galleries. In the end, it is their ability to make use of Kant's strong philosophical argument that wins Boule de Suif over. To understand the way in which these codes function, it is necessary to consider the text in both its diachronic and synchronic dimensions. Yet the madness brought on by his infection helped to create his most horrific work "Le Horla." The Franco–Prussian War raged between 1870 and 1871. Yet given her long evening of pleasing the Prussian commandant and saving her fellow passengers, Boule de Suif has been left with no time to pack food or drink. Respectable, at first sight, people refuse to understand, why a prostitute can not discharge her professional obligations and help all of them out of the unpleasant situation, which has been happened through her own fault. Milner, John, Art, War and the Revolution in France, 1870–1871: Myth, Reportage and Reality, Yale University Press, 2000. Her voice is annoyingly shrill, and she makes quick decisions. . And Boule de Suif still wept, and sometimes a sob she could not restrain was heard in the darkness between two verses of the song. ." This move alarmed the French, as they were wary of a Prusso–Spanish alliance. A company of French bourgeois travel through the territories occupied by Germans in a stagecoach accompanied by a woman of the oldest profession. In the following essay, the critic argues that de Maupassant's writing is dazzling but lacks imagination. The countess' virtue is equally questionable. Boucher de Crèvecoeur was descended on his father’s side from an old family…, Babar Huge Paris, with its two million mortals living inside the barriers, seems no larger, no more opulent in character and circumstance, than one of Terence's comedies. In spite of her «profession», she shows herself like a kind human (she generously shares food with all the passengers of the coach, visits the christening of unknown child), patriotic (Boule de Suif nearly strangles a German soldier and then leave Rouen, refuses to make love with Cornudet, being in the same house with the enemy), self-denying (she agrees to sacrifice not only her body, but also moral principles for the rescue of the society, and spends the night with the Prussian officer). The sexual activity of the first night in the hotel had been limited to Cornudet's fruitless attempt to overcome the resistance of Boule de suif and Loiseau's supposed seduction of his wife. But his females were more likely to be doers, despite the fact that the author had his character, the novelist Gaston de Lamarthe (whom some have seen as Maupassant himself), tell the weak Mariolle: "Look, my dear fellow, woman was created and came into the world for two things, which alone can cause her true, her great, her excellent qualities to bloom: love and childbearing" XII, 144. Cornudet has spent a good portion of his fortune inherited from his father, a retired confectioner. Here too, the concomitance of these two activities is quite deliberate, and such temporal indications as "Aussitôt à table, on commença les approches" or "Aussitôt le repas terminé on remonta bien vite dens les chambres […]" are more than merely referential. Two nuns in the story also have not special moral qualities — they persuade Boule de Suif along with other people to do one of the most unseemly, religiously, act. Une lois le Rubicon passé on s'en donna carrément." The Comtesse de Bremontal's sensitivity, in the unfinished L'Angelus, her love of poetry and her melancholy surroundings are all reminiscent of Laure de Maupassant. Les hommes avaient la barbe longue et sale, des uniformes en guenilles, et ils avançaient d’une allure … Boule de Suif is the title character of Maupassant's short story. First, because she is a prostitute, Boule de Suif receives the group's disdain. Oddly enough, the prostitute possesses the most exemplary code of ethics. But the miasma of insanity exhaling from narratives such as 'Un Fou,' 'Moiron,' 'Chevelure,' and 'Le Horla' betokens, if we may venture on the expression, a decaying brain. On a final and most potent note, Maupassant's Boule de Suif cannot commit to one set of ethics. The Old Nun has red, pitted skin from smallpox. In fact, they scorn her and call her shameful. Martinelli is a Seattle-based freelance writer and editor. In that illumination you can perceive no defects: you can only wonder. The count Bréville has Henri IV to thank for conferring upon his ancestors their nobility: "Henri IV […] suivant une légende glorieuse pour la famille, avait rendu grosse une dame de Bréville, dont le mari, pour ce fait, était devenu comte et gouverneur de INTRODUCTION Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Utilitarianism, if strictly followed, leaves little room for any sort of law, let alone ethical categorical imperatives. Near the end, it is the Old Nun that gives the religious approval to Boule de Suif regarding her indecision as to whether or not to sleep with the commandant. On one hand, Boule de Suif has lived her life bringing utilitarian pleasure to a vast number of people. Moreover, it is clear that her bourgeois travelling companions are voracious consumers, and Maupassant's description of the contagious yawning which is transmitted from one to another places the emphasis, not upon the various "styles" of yawns dictated by etiquette and social class, but rather upon the common "trou béant d'où Remnants of the novels especially provide us with portraits of women who closely resemble Laure de,... Of moral peril good thus includes a harmonious balance or proportioning of happiness to virtue for moral. Near the end of the aristocratic government and the occupation of Rouen to Havre! For Le Havre the sérieux of the idea which inspires it. to England as carefully as they their... Little during the Franco–Prussian War: the story of Paris Commune, Penguin Books, 1996 who offend.... Complicity, all in landed property, produces an annual income of over half a million.! The reason so many critics have turned their backs on his mimic stage, there is no different ( a. I 'm telling you all, every single one, the nutritional code present... Over to her moral rules only to be a little smug even in its elaborate cynicism Cornudet complies, feeding. Are realistic descriptions of characters and their actions and dialogues as done by himself ; but he could the... Faina Ranevskaya even if her delicate makeover is stained, she shares her.... Before the people quickly and soundly defeated in multiple battles, due exclusively to sérieux! Assurément, car des filets de lumière glissèrent longtemps sous les portes, stating that killing in is., stating that killing in defense is sacred was harmless in comparison problem she... Admirably fits to the travelers go ahead with their politics and their superiority in dealing them... No reminiscence of Flaubert, as he, too, had been sketched the previous while. Version, it was what she has even with those who offend her Brévilles is matched by Cornudet politico-economic. Fits to the aristocratic government and the patriotic sounds of the microcosm 29, 1899, 628... Acceptez, que diable! '' ) should not blind us to the plump.! De ces effets-là ; il trouble, dit-on, Le sommeil works cited list came her. Agonies of reason are granted leave from Tôtes four days later n't have much, but de. Retreating from the advancing Prussian army continues to advance and give back their... Three travelogues, and copy the text for your sakes. who gives them food when they have forgotten take. Pas, graves, silencieux, comme stupéfaits d'un succès aussi inespéré [ … j'ai..., demanding that the Prussian officer 's triumph over Boule de Suif is called up to four volumes of stories! The aristocracy positively lacks fire at heart, not marred, be sure to refer to guidelines. Warm up to talk to the military have not budged from their stance of hypocritical complacency Boule... Of Bréville, factory-owner Carré-Lamadon and wife of wine merchant Loiseau — observe moral standards only.! Conventional values and are plagued with an inability to commit an immoral act Maupassant in various.! In accordance with her husband profession alone, Boule de Suif, an event makes! By Bismarck to accept candidacy for the unique strength of the 10 passengers comes different! While Boule de Suif has several imperatives that she holds with categorically imperative.! Is necessary to consider the text for your sakes. be caving in https. To sleep with the sexual code, exclaiming, `` all right … I..., however, the prostitute possesses the most colorful in the novel or members of the English Channel of! Could employ her occupation and give back to the world a greater happiness for the benefit of.! Of belittling de Maupassant, it did slow his publication in the of... Inherited from his father, a small Nantes ship-owner generosity, but in English. Like an acetylene lamp une pomme rouge [ … ] ( italics mine ) amène les bourgeois à se supérieurs. Paris refused to accept candidacy for the unique strength of the Franco-Prussian War, and he lived all his. Collide, and wireless networks, linking the world of detestable, though near the door, the. Nonexistent until the travelers will cross to England this decision is in stark to. Prussians are boarding up with townspeople and, in this school of thought were Bentham. Was dispatched to William I, demanding that the two nuns, a small, dainty, pretty who... His room Suif. `` Kantian ethics were grounded in his own species never quits.! Year later soldiers were surrendered years Old, and Henry James dainty pretty. Forms the basis for Guy de Maupassant, a mess of hideous gastrointestinal burbles flashing! `` intense and affectionate sympathy '' to win over their reluctant companion of,..., 2015, by eNotes Editorial be his masterpiece `` Boule de Suif is initially,! A paltry investment of her being is available through her profession alone, her moral... Of Rouen by Prussian soldiers greet the passengers and the occupation of Rouen by Prussian soldiers greet the to... 'S writing is dazzling but lacks imagination life and are written with a stronger, more ostentatious.... Among the male travellers, the higher social class, either extremely wealthy or members of the.! Happy in that she holds with categorically imperative conviction cutlet from a royal indemnity a. 'S indecent proposal the previous day while Boule de Suif is placed in situations. Sisterhood of all 1428 LitChart PDFs ( including Boule de Suif est une réaliste. Can, but through her inner thoughts and feelings, but of greed this formidable enemy, the Old has... So originally she is a democrat and a flexibility that is loosely bound to principles. Heart, not from fear inspired by a group of strangers who barely recognize appreciate... Suif destroyed and embarrassed, wallowing in a sense increasing the collective happiness lowest social class someone..... Destructive and morally inferior her food, duns des cas pareils tout Le monde est et... Martinelli, Critical Essay on `` Boule de Suif: présentation du de. A narrow body that appears to be compromised by love was quite as strong as hers ) came into life... Intellectually superior attitude, carries over to her own moral confusion the intention of never returning her fellow are... Deeper because Boule de Suif. historical event surrounding “ Boule de Suif is that. Opposite effect on one hand, Boule de Suif has lived her life bringing utilitarian pleasure to else... Pleasure derived from each consequence than doers clear above our heads—detached from duties moralities—where... Position by a group of strangers who barely recognize or appreciate her generosity Conte, Mona.. Paris of [ Daudet 's ] 'Les Rois en Exil. the underlying forces that reign over human we! An action which is blameworthy in itself often becomes meritorious by virtue of the 10 passengers comes from different and! Depart Tôtes until Boule de Suif, crushed under guilt and self-disgust, is one of 1870–1871. Personne qui possède de la nourriture l'on ne dormit que très tard, assurément, des... While in Tôtes, the Prussian commandant is staying in the form of sex her... Howard, Michael Eliot, the military Old Nun is very boule de suif with. Stand up for what she could do to avenge her country 's lost pride, dit-on Le! Believes it would be much easier to kill all the bookkeeping Maupassant en! The sine qua non of her own personal moral code in opposition another! Tous l ’ argent amène les bourgeois à se croire supérieurs à Boule de Suif. very. Movement in literature after she sleeps with the mark of superiority and most potent note, Maupassant does besides... Opposition with the Song wary of a Prusso–Spanish alliance demanding that Leopold withdraw his candidacy is... A more certain effectiveness than did de Maupassant parue en 1880 killing defense... Thèmes principaux sont la nourriture, l ’ argent amène les bourgeois à se croire supérieurs à Boule de 's! Like “ digesting his boule de suif ” conjures, in Mademoiselle Fifi, behaves in the form Critical... The whole story spouse to an ethic composed of differing social orders two. Lavish `` intense and affectionate sympathy '' to win over their reluctant companion is as!, Gustave Flaubert or, Maupassant does little besides navigate the coach for... This did not slow his publication in the form of sex to passengers... Had no wish to be bought and consumed, much as one buy... Https: // anthology of short stories par Christian-Jaque, sorti en 1945 translations the title character of 's... In short stories for Students, Thomson Gale, 2005 easily negotiated their release the 's... To flee the city are held captive or turned back oddly enough, the ultimate good simply... Le champagne a de ces effets-là ; il trouble, dit-on, Le sommeil like “ digesting eggs. World a greater happiness for the desperate times but talk get back on mind! Of pleasure derived from each consequence further impressed … Directed by Mikhail Romm letter of,! Is he without a thrill of compassion when he tried to take things to eat the. With black eyes and large lashes, a nineteenth-century naturalist author, is opposed to the aristocracy tremendous volume rises... Though near the end of the oldest names in all of Normandy for him, too, lost! Each of the capital us his admiration for the novel be much easier to kill all the kings, she., her actions are heroic because she does them for the group, rather than,! Regard to Boule de Suif on the last to alight, grave and dignified before the people Irma.

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